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NUCLEAR SUPPLY CHAIN Koeberg Supplier Development and Localisation The nuclear supply chain legislative and regulatory framework is constantly being revised in view of global lessons learnt, which includes events such as the Fukushima incident. In view of this it is vital to stay informed on the requirements to provide services and products in the nuclear industry. K oeberg nuclear power station ranks amongst the safest of the world’s top ranking PWRs (pressurised water reactors) of its vintage. In March 2001, Koeberg was awarded NOSCAR status, the grading for safety performance that acknowledges excellence in occupational Safety Health Environment and Quality (SHEQ), for the fifth time by the National Occupational Safety Association (NOSA). The nuclear industry is a ‘world family’ governed by an international body, the International Atomic Energy Association (IAEA). It is a dynamic environment and its members strive for continuous improvement, driven by institutions such as the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) and the Institute for Nuclear Plant Operators (INPO). Koeberg is an active participant in these programmes, and frequent audits are performed on Koeberg. Major events such as nuclear accidents will compel the industry to reassess its current design, plant status, and practices, and realign to include lessons learnt. Koeberg too has mandated a programme of realignment following the Fukushima Dai-ichi incident. South Africa is a member state of the IAEA, which means that we adopt the international safety standards and practices as applicable and relevant. 96 Several regulations of the South African National Nuclear Regulator (NNR) are founded on those of the United States National Regulatory Commission (USNRC), and South Africa therefore compares favourably with international best practice. All countries wanting to participate in any nuclear activity shall conform to IAEA guidelines. African countries have limited or no nuclear facilities, and those that do, have poor nuclear regulatory experience due to limited exposure. South Africa is the exception. ALMOST FOUR DECADES OF HISTORY Koeberg Power Station is the only nuclear power station on the African continent. Construction of the twin- unit plant began in 1976. Unit 1 was synchronised to the National Grid on 4 April 1984, and unit 2 followed 15 months later on 25 July 1985. REGULATING SAFETY IS A NATIONAL RESPONSIBILITY South Africa, including its regulator, nuclear operators, and the government, has an obligation of diligence and duty of care to its people, and is expected to fulfil its national and international undertakings and obligations. A global nuclear safety regime is in place and is being continuously improved. IAEA safety standards, which support the implementation of binding international instruments and national safety infrastructures, form the cornerstone of this global regime. The IAEA safety standards constitute a useful tool for contracting parties to assess their performance under these international conventions. The IAEA safety standards have recently been updated to capture the events associated with the Fukushima Dai-ichi incident in Japan. The nuclear industry is subject to stringent safety standards due to the acknowledgement of the consequence of any potential safety incident. Design basis changes, especially those that have an impact on nuclear safety, require proper justification and are reviewed and approved by the national regulators. In addition, there is joint collaboration between nuclear operators worldwide in ensuring safety by way of safety audits carried out by WANO. QUALITY AND SAFETY REQUIREMENTS OF APPROVED SUPPLIERS The South African National Nuclear Regulator (NNR) has recently published a requirements document titled, “Quality and Safety Management Requirements for Nuclear Installations” (RD-0034) to ESI AFRICA ISSUE 1 2015